Saturday, 10 August 2013

Military Structure

The Emir realized that the power of the state is reflected in the military strength of the state also it gives a great image to the state, the Emir used the military to enforce order and security throughout the Emirate in order to stop the chaos that spread in the country after the fall of Turkish rule in Algeria.

Above Image (Emir Abdelkader) 

When the Emir established the Emirate the social organization in Algeria was only based mainly on tribe so the individuals were only attached to their tribes, the idea of nationalism was not known at that time, if the was a war or conflict the tribes used gather together with their men and cavalry then go to war after when it ends the men immediately returns to their tribes and continue with their daily work, the military service was not applied with the tribes. The regular army of the Emir is formed by volunteers, recruitment it is meant for young people from all regions and all tribes they were called for jihad (Holy War) against the French invaders of the country under the banner of Emir Abdelkader. Recruitment has no requirements and is for all ages and in all regions of the Emirate.

Above Image (Emir’s Pistols) 

Above Image (Emir's Blade and Bag)

Therefore the Emir had to organize an army to protect the Emirate because he knew that he would confront the French armies that were better trained and better equipped commanded by experienced officers  and generals.
The Emir began organizing the army of the Emirate, the Emir was the first leader to establish a national army in the modern history of Algeria he also built factories in order to manufacture weapons using the experience from French, Spaniards and Italians.

Above Image (Military laws) 

He called his army Jaish Al -Mohammadi (Mohammad’s Army)
The Emir divided his army into three divisions: Infantry, Cavalry and artillery. Then he developed military law which contains of details regarding the discipline, recruitment, polices, salaries and weapons.

Irregular: 10,240
Regular: 5,960

Khayala (Cavalry): are soldiers who fought on horseback
Moushat (Infantry): are soldiers fighting on foot

Tobajiya (Artillery): are soldiers who uses cannons

Above Image (Cavalry)

Above Image (Infantry)

The artillery unit of the Jaish Al-Mohammadi are the deserters from the French army who were Turks and Kouloughlis they were experienced in maintaining light and heavy canons. Each artillery unit has 12 soldiers operating it.

Above Image (Military Headquarters)

Above Image (Military Headquarters Gate) 


Emir Abdelkader classed a unique uniform for each type of soldiers, the uniform cloth was made from Linen and gasket.

It consists of a jacket made from a grey wool including with a hoody and trousers are also made from wool are in blue also Sedria (vest) are in red. Every three month a soldier is given a shirt and a pair of shoes that are in yellow leather including a burnous (long cloak made from wool).

The Cavalry uniform consists of a red jacket with some black stripes on the sleeve seams and back, also a red vest decorated with blue hair on it. Each Cavalryman is giving a haik which covers his head and his shoulders which is made from camel’s hair including a turban. 

The Jaish Al-Mohammadi was formed of 8,000 soldiers, 2,000 cavalry, 22,40 light canons and 20 heavy cannons.

“Nothing is more beneficial than piety and courage”

Each soldier had a bag that has a leather bag which can be worn with a belt worn over the right shoulder, the soldier is also equipped with a rifle with a bayonet, pistols and a yatagan (curved blade) attached to the belt of the soldier, the cavalryman is armed with a rifle, yatagan  and a pistol.

The Food
For food each soldier receives 2 Kesra (Algerian bread) and a kilo of flour and semolina in order to cook couscous twice a week, also a group of 20 men share the sheep between them.

The Wage
The wage of a soldier is paid from April to June with Boudjou monthly depending on their rankings:

Agha (General) 22 Boudjous
Sayaf (First Lieutenant) 12 Boudjous
Rais Sayaf (Lieutenant) 8 Boudjous
Jaouche (Corporal) 7 Boudjous
Khaba (Captain) 6 Boudjous

Boudjou: is a currency used by the turks in Algeria
1 Boudjou = 50 Mohammadia

The Accommodation

In Garrison soldiers often live in rooms that have a mats and carpets, at the camp about 20 soldiers live in a war tent.

Each badge of embroidered sword on attached on each shoulder of the following soldiers including silver rings on their left hand.

Agha (General) 4 Gold Badges
Sayaf (First Lieutenant) 2 Gold Badges
Rais Sayaf (Lieutenant) 2 Silver Badges
Jaouche (Corporal) 1 Silver Badge
Khaba (Captain) 1 Bronze Badge

Command Units
Emir’s Bodyguards – 500 men – commanded by Emir Abdelkader
Katiba (Battalion) – 1000 men – commanded by Agha
Sariya (Company) – 100 men – commanded by Sayaf
Fasela (Platoon) – 35 men – commanded by Khaba

Above Image (walls of Sidi Qada) 

Has also sought effort to import weapons from the only country that opposed the French invasion of Algeria which was England, but he failed. The Emir endeavoured to build an Arsenal of ammunition and weapons, both in the Mascara and Takdempt with the assistance from foreign expertise so the Emir hired men with industrial experience in making weapons like the Spaniards, Italians and also French, the Emir also choose the best strategic locations that are fully fortified like the city of Miliana which he built an weaponry factory in its suburbs so he can manufacture ammunition and weapons.

Above Image (Military Headquartersin Miliana)

Above Image (Military Headquartersin Miliana)

The Emir’s factory started to manufacture Algerian weapons, the Algerian Army also used weapons that were captured by the Emir’s army after the battle with the French. Emir Abdelkader trained his army well and also set up special military combat and tactics, he also benefited from geographical locations like mountains and fields. The Emir always used to ambush the enemy forces and attack them surprisely this tactic which is known today as “guerrilla warfare”.

Above Image (Miliana weaponry Factory) 

Monday, 15 July 2013

Administration in the Emirate


Education was the primary concern in the policy of the Emir.

The Emir was confident that the developing in this field is to take care of books and references whatever the value of it scientific, literary and therefore the Emir was trying his best in collecting books from different subjects like buying, copying or transporting them.

Image Above (manuscripts)

The Emir also issued orders to his soldiers strictly not to mishandle or disrespect the books and the one who breaks these orders would be punished severely. He also used to encourage by rewarding them for any one that brings a book or the author, to copy one manuscript it would take several months to copy it and this was a long time for the Emir because his Emirate was in war with French invaders.

Image Above (manuscripts)

This policy has succeed a great success by bringing books from different fields to his emirate, the Emir also build a library to store and organize these books that he has gathered but he also linked the library with many organizations in the emirate like schools, masjids and Zawiya (religious schools), the library was open to everyone students, scholars and even soldiers. He also used to store a huge number of manuscripts in the Takdempt Fortress where he used to keep not only manuscripts but also classified state documents and diplomatic letters.

Image Above (manuscripts)

The Emir took care of books and manuscripts even in difficult situations like war, he transported all the books and manuscripts that he stored in the Takdempt fortress to Smala after when the Takdempt fortress fell to the French invaders, but in 1843 the French soldiers seized the books and manuscripts after the fall of Smala. The Emir also choose qualified teachers in order to take the role of teaching and training to the students in order to develop the education in the emirate, the Emir supported the teachers financially and morally and he also gave them wages to them depending of their qualification as he also build schools across his emirate in villages, towns and cities.

Judicial system

After the establishment of the Emirate and dividing it administratively, the Emir has appointed in every region of the emirate a Qadi (religious judge) that would rule in accordance with Islamic religious law (sharia) on the doctrine of Imam Malik. The Emir knew that justice is the basis of governance so he set requirements for those who assumed to be judges is to be honest, jurist, chastity & practising Islam.

To insure that the judiciary is running good, the Emir took care of the financial aspects of these judges so he made each judge have a respectable monthly wage of 100 Douro (50 Francs) plus some additional payments based on the type of the case he is judging on.

The Emir has separated between civil and military judiciary, then he made for each department a special judge who decides on the issues and cases raised in front of him and the judge could be elected for one year only.

The emir also recruited two clerks in all regional councils, the senior clerk does some studies on fatwas (legal judgment) issued by the judge in a particular region then he sends the fatwa to Mascara to study deeply on it then the Emir linked all the judges in the regions to review their cases with Supreme Qadi Ahmed ben Al-Hashemi Al-Mrahi.

The Emir was also keen to be the provisions of the civil and military judiciary under the Sharia (Islamic religious law) which the Emir made it the main source and the only source for ruling his Emirate, the provisions are derived from the Holy Quran, Sunnah (teachings and practices of Prophet Muhammad PBUH) and ijtihad (Islamic diligence) in order to establish the Emirate which would remind the people of the days of Rashidun Caliphate and also to wipe off the negative image of the Turkish ruling in Algeria, considering that the success of the new established Emirate in his opinion is only to remove the corruption inherited by the Turks and work to change the old relations or at least adjust it as far as the circumstances and capabilities allow him to do that so the Emir can unify the Algerian people.

This policy has come to success which gained the attention of the Algerian people which they turned to him so the Emir saw this policy has brought  a success which he united the Algerian people under his Emirate so he can later prepare his nation to face the French invasion from his country.

The judicial provisions to be implemented immediately and especially if there is a threat against the homeland, like dealing with an enemy, spying and breaching the economic blockade on the enemy these threats are characterized these provisions severity and strictly to be a deterrent to others, which is not be appealed the principle that the Emir was ruling on like he said “the one who helps the enemy financially will be financially punished (fines) and the one who helps the enemy physically will be punished by cutting off their heads (executions).”

And so on thanks to his care of judiciary and implementation of the provisions, now there was justice and security throughout the emirate and people lived peacefully under the of flag of a popular national emirate, the crimes vanished and the situations has calmed after the chaos that happened after the fall of the Turkish rule in Algeria. 

Image Above (Court house)

The Emir was also fighting the ethical corruption in the society like banning prostitution, drinking alcohol and taking drugs across his emirate, as he also banned the soldiers from playing cards and wearing gold and silver except in their weapons and horses as he also ordered the men to pray their prayers at the masjid.

Algerian people are living under peace and security under the emirate, as he Emir said “Know that the only purpose of my acceptance of this position (Emir) only that you will be safe on yourselves and your honour and your wealth assured on your country enjoying your religious duties and I cannot reach that except with your help by money or men.”

The Emir took care of the economy of his emirate, he’s interest was only to improve the living of the people in his emirate and find sufficient resources in order to boost the economy of Emirate.
Above Image (Mohammadia coins) 

He set up his efforts on developing the trade and to overcome the obstacles that they faced on their filed of trade, the Emir concentrated on the foreign trade like exporting food grain and wool under the treaties signed by Emir with the French. The Emir hired the Jews to develop the trade because of their experience in the field of trading.
Above Image (Mohammadia coin) 
The importing income to the Emirate were Zaakat (religious taxes), Customs tax and trading income. The Emir also established a mint which he can manufacture coins then he named the currency of the Emirate as Mohammadia and Nisfia but there were other currencies in use like Douro.

Sunday, 14 July 2013

Establishment of the Emirate

      Emirate of Abdelkader

             1832 – 1847

Capital: Mascara
Languages: Arabic & Berber
Religion: Islam
Government: Shura Council
Currency: Mohammadia, Nisfia & Douro 

Moto "victory from Allah and conquest is soon”.

The Emir took advantage from his previous experience which he gained from his journey to the Arab world especially during his stay in Egypt, he was interested in the administration of Mohammed Ali Pasha.

Creation of Shura Council

The Emir was keen to bring in scholars and jurists in order to create a powerful Shura Council which was like a Parliament at that time, the Shura Council was consisted of 12 senior scholars and jurists they are:

Ahmed Ben Al-Tahami
Abdelkader Ben Rakosh
Abdullah Saqqat Al-Mashrafi
Taher Al-Mahfoudi
Mohammed Al-Mahfoudi
Ahmed Ben Taher Al-Mashrafi
Mohammed Ben Mokhtar Al-Wargey
Maki Al-Makhroubi
Mokhtar Ben Maki
Hajj Abdelkader Ben Rakosh
Ibrahim Ben Qaddi
Ahmad Ben Hashemi Al-Marhi

The Emir has assigned the presidency of the Shura Council to the Supreme Judge Ahmad Ben Hashemi Al-Marhi where he had book so will record all issues then address them to the Council then the decisions are made by the agreement  of all members of the council.

Ministers of the Emirate 
Minister of Internal Affairs: Mohammed Ben Sayed El Arabi
Minister of War: Mohammed Ben Jelani
Minister of Economy (Public Sector): El Haj Ben Abi Abdellah
Minister of Economy (Private Sector): Abou Sayed Mohammed Ben Fakha
Minister of Religious Affair: El Haj Taher Abou Zayed

Minister of Tax and Zakat: Abou Mohammed Jelani Al Alawi

Like every state it must have a unique flag and emblem which differs them from others Emir Abdelkader choose the flag to be made of flax and silk, the top and bottom of the flag are in green and white in the middle also it has a symbol of a hand with writings in gold saying” Nasir Al-Din Emir Adbelkader Ben Muhieddine and victory from Allah and conquest is soon”.

Image Above (Flag of the emirate)

The emblem of the state is in a hexagram shape, there are writings in the sides of the shape which are: Allah, Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him), Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali. In the middle of the star it says Nasir Al-Din Emir Adbelkader Ben Muhieddine.

Image Above (Emblem of the emirate)

Provinces of the Emirate

After the establishment of the emirate, Emir Abdelkader has divided his emirate into administrative provinces to facilitate the management and ease the burden on the central government.

Mascara Province
Capital: Mascara
Governor: Ahmed Ben Al-Tahami

Tlemcen Province
Capital: Tlemcen
Governor: Mohammed Bouhamedi

Miliana Province
Capital: Miliana
Governor: Muhieddine Ben Alal Al-Qaleyi

 Titteri Province  
Capital: Médéa
Governor: Mohammed Barkani

Medjana Province
Capital: Setif
Governor: Mohammed Ben Abdelsalam Al-Maqdani

Ziban Province
Capital: Biskara
Governor: Ferhat Bern Saeed

Jibal Province
Capital: Bouira
Governor: Ahmed Ben Salem

Sahara Province
Capital: Laghouat
Governor: Gadour Ben Abdelbaqi

Each Province was divided into districts then it divides to a group of tribes, the head of a district is called Agha and the Sheikh was the head of the group of tribes. 

Friday, 12 July 2013


Pledge of allegiance ceremony began in the Valley of Farbouha under the Tree of Al-Dardar which is a great tree where people used gather under it for discussion. In 28 November 1832 people pledged their allegiances to Abdelkader who was at the age of 24 then his father called him Emir (Prince) which then followed by his relatives, tribal leaders and then the rest of the people.

Above Image (people pledged their allegiance to Emir Abdelkader)

After when the people pledged their allegiance to Emir Abdelkader which he went to the Mascara Masjid and spoke to a huge crowd of people, urging them to discipline, commitment, Jihad and work then after when the Emir finished his speech he sent messages to the rest of the tribes that did not attended the ceremony to inform them about the pledge, the people then chose Abdelkader as their leader that will lead them to build a new state and to fight the French invaders.

Above Image (Tree of Al-Dardar)

Wednesday, 10 July 2013

French invasion of Algeria

The Algerian power was growing in the Mediterranean Sea that was worrying for the Europeans who have interests in the Mediterranean Sea so they decided to face the Algerian power that was growing increasingly.

Destruction of Algeria was a target for all European kingdoms so they decided in the conference of Vienna in 1818, the Europeans were competing with each other in order who is the first to invade Algeria because of its strategical location so the Kingdom of France was the first to invade Algeria after when Algeria lost almost all of its navy during the Battle of Navarino in 1827.

Above Image (Battle of Navarino)

A new Algerian state was formed at the beginning of 16 century and during the 17 century Algeria separated from Ottoman Empire and established an independent state which was called Regency of Algiers, the governors were appointed through elections and Algeria has been able to build a powerful navy that reached its influence to the Mediterranean Sea and imposed taxes for European kingdoms in order to let their ships go through the Mediterranean Sea, this made the European kingdoms seek to setup agreements and treaties with Algeria.

Above Image (Flag of Regency of Algiers)

The Algerian French relations begin in 1561 when Algeria decided to support the French Revolution in 1789 when the European Kingdoms agreed to besiege the French revolutionist government which was looking for financial support but they only find Algeria as their only ally so they asked for help. The governor of Algeria responded to the French request where he offered them loans (Ex-dividend) and also he decided to supply France with wheat so French people don’t die from starvation because their government was besieged from their neighbouring European kingdoms. But France has repudiated against Algeria and decided not to repay its debt with Algeria which resulted in conflict between the two countries.

Above Image (French Revolution)

France wanted to capture the fort of El Kala which France wanted to make it a base to control the Mediterranean Sea, all French rulers have dreamed to invade Algeria starting from King Louis XIV to Napoleon Bonaparte who insisted to occupy Algeria in order to eliminate the British presence in the Mediterranean Sea.
King Charles X was the ruler of Kingdom of France in 1824, he felt that there is an opportunity to launch a military campaign against Algeria so he can be able to eliminate his political opponents, absorb anger of French people, block the British supplies and to revenge for the fan affair which was a political insult to France.
France felt like it was the protector of Catholicism and to achieve victory over Algeria it was like achieving victory over Islam, this what the French commander Clermont de Tonnerre has said when imposing siege on Algiers “I wanted to Divine Providence to be raised to our Majesty (King) firmly is the person who is going to end the worst enemies of Christianity, perhaps luck will help us to spread civil life between the indigenous people and to convert them to Christianity.”

France was seeking hardly to make Algeria a French colony because of its wealth of raw materials which France needed to boost its economy which was in crisis. France had by providing a large amount of money by exporting all products from Algeria to European markets.

Above Image (Fan Affair) 

On 16 June 1827 France declared war on Algeria because the ruler of Algeria Hussein Dey refused to apologize to Kingdom of France for the fan affair especially when Algeria lost most of its navy.

Above Image (Hussien Dey)

The French forces under General Louis de Bourmont during the invasion of Algeria 1830:

36,000 Infantry
4,000 Cavalry
83 Canons
503 Ships

French army were made up of experienced soldiers who majority of them participated in Napoleonic wars, the military campaign was launched from the port of Toulon then through Spanish Island of Palma until they reached the seashore of Sidi Ferruch in 14th of June, Hussein Dey was aware of the French movement through his spies. The Algerian preparation to face the French military campaign was poor because most of the Algerian soldiers are volunteers which they did have any military experience unlike the French.

Above Image (General Louis de Bourmont)

The Algerian forces under Commander Ibrahim Agha during the invasion of Algeria 1830:

1,000 Janissaries
5,000 Andalusian soldiers
3,000 Arabian volunteers
2,000 Amazigh volunteers

In 14 June 1830 the French reached the beaches of Sidi Ferruch, the Algerian forces was waiting in order to prevent them from landing to the beach so Ibrahim Agha the commander of the Algerian forces and the son of Hussein Dey who was a person with no military experience unlike the former commander Yahya Agha, Ibrahim Agha with his poor decision making on military plans was behind the defeat of the Algerian army in 18 June 1830. The plan was to wait for the French troops to land on the ground and then attack them but Ahmed Bey who was the Bey of Constantine offered commander Ibrahim Agha a better plan which was to attack the French ships from the beach and prevent the French troops from landing to the beach but Ibrahim Agha did not accept the plan of Ahmed but he insisted that his plan will work.

Above Image (Battle of Staoueli)

19 June 1830 the French forces defeated the Algerian army in the Battle of Staoueli, which they made their way to the city of Algiers which was defenceless. General Louis de Bourmont captured Algiers without any resistance in 5 July 1830 and made Hussein Dey sign a Treaty of surrender which allowed the French to occupy the city where the flag of France was raised over the city towers, the French did not respect the treaty between them and Hussein Dey so they stole the treasure of Casabah which worth 52 million Franc gold, expelling the Algerian army and seizing their property and finally transforming Masjids to Churches. 

Monday, 8 July 2013

Emir Abdelkader

Emir Abdelkader was an Algerian Islamic Scholar, Political and Military leader who led a war against the French invaders in Algeria which he resisted for 15 years, he is also is the founder of modern Algerian state he was called the “Modern Jugurtha” by the French. In Algeria he is considered as a symbol of the Algerian resistance against the French colonialism.

Above Image (Emir Abdelkader)

Family and Origins


The family of Emir Abdelkader are the descendants from Idrisid dynasty who ruled Morocco and Al-Andalus (Spain), Abelqawi I are the ancestor of Emir Abdelkader who came from Morocco and settled in Fort of Bani Hammad near Setif after the conflict heated in Marrakech. The Family of Emir was known for knowledge and Jihad which gained respect from the people around, Muhieddine father of Abdelkader gained influence over the tribes that was located in western Algeria. Muhieddine married four wives and he had six children, Abdelkader was the fourth child and his mother Zahra daughter of Sidi Mohammed Ben Doha Al-Hassniya was the third wife of  Muhieddine.

Above Image (Fort of Bani Hammad)

Family Tree

Emir Abdelkader son of Muhieddine son of Mustafa son of Mohammed son of Mokhtar son of Abdelkader son of Ahmed Al-Mokhtar son of Ali son of Ahmed son of Abelqawi son of Abdelkader son of Ahmed son of Mohammed son of Abdelqawi son of Messaoud son of Taawus son of Yaqub son of Khaled son of Yousef son ofAhmed son of Bashar son of Mohammed son of Al-Akbar son of Abdullah son of Hassan Abelqawi son of Ahmed son of Mohammed Ben Idris Al-Asghar son of Idris son of Hassan Al-Muthana son of Hassan son of Fatmia daughter of of Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him).

Early life

Emir Abdelkader was born in the town of Mascara near Oran (western Algeria) on Tuesday 6th September 1808, his family originally from Amazigh (Berber) tribe of Beni Ifren which they were part of the Zenata tribe, also his family are descendants from Idrisid dynasty which they are descendants of the Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him).

Above Image (Emir’s house)

Emir grew up in a religious, knowledgeable and cultural environment he was also taken a great care from his father which he tried to raise him in a way that he could be able handle all the responsibilities and to able to lead his family after his death, that is the reason the Emir Abdelkader was only taken care by his father and nobody else.

Above Image (Zawiya)

When the Emir reached at the age of four he joined the Zawiya (Religious school) of his father in Mascara, he was genius at very young age where he taught to read and write at the age of five which allowed him to study Tafsir (Interpretation of Quran) and Haddith (Teachings of the Prophet). At the age of 12 he became a Hafez (memorized whole Quran by heart), the Emir loved to sit in library of his Zawiya and to read Islamic books regularly. After two years the Emir was qualified enough to give lectures in Masjid about different Islamic jurisprudence. After when finished his religious education he father encouraged him to start his military training which was like riding horses, shooting and sword combat, also he joined horse racing competitions which was organized at that time.

Above Image (Zawiya)

When the Emir was properly grown physically and mentally his father decided to send him to Oran so he can continue his education, so he joined the school that was managed by Sidi Ahmed Ben Khoja the Emir studied in that school for two years where he learned different subjects like philosophy, numeracy, geography and politics he also studied Islamic jurisprudence deeply on the hands of Sheikh Ahmad bin Taher Batawe who was a famous scholar at his time.

The Emir returned to his home in Mascara after when he stayed in Oran for two years (1821-1823), his father Muhieddine decided to marry his son Abdelkader after when he seen his becoming a young man that is physically and mentally grown, he was arranged to marry his cousin Lalla Kheira she was a girl of beauty and good manners then the Emir decided to merry her and his wedding was organized in a Islamic way and his age was at that time 15 years old.

In spite of the wealth which the family of Abdelkader had, they did not use if for enjoyment and luxury but they lived a simple and modest life at all time. The hobbies that the Emir loved  to do when finishing his religious duties was to go to forest for hunting, he used to take three servants with him and go for hunting birds, gazelles and other wildlife animals.

House arrest

The Turkish Authority in Algeria was not comfortable with meetings that was held by the Emir’s Father Muhieddine and the talking that was going on there so they decided to put Muhieddine and his son Abdelkader under house arrest in 1821 in Oran, the Emir lived in Oran for while which made him join the Scholar Council where he learned Arabic literature, poetry and science. The Emir adapted to the city life and society he was also watching the corrupted Turkish rule so he was wondering if there are any way of reforming and developing the country.

Journey to the Arab World

After two years, the Turkish authority has allowed Muhieddine and his Abdelkader to go to perform Hajj (pilgrimage) after the intervention of some nobles like Mustafa Ben Ismail and other nobles. Muhieddine and son Abdelkader started their journey staring in 1825 from Oran then through Médéa until they reached Tunisia where they joined delegation of pilgrims.

Above Image (Mohammed Ali Pasha)

Abdelkader was 18 years old when he travelled with his father to the Arab world, then after 15 days they reached Egypt at the city of Alexandria where they rested there for few days, then they continued until they reached Cairo where they met the ruler of Egypt Mohammad Ali Pasha who was a leader that had an excellent administrative and military skills, they also had a chance to meet Egypt’s grand Islamic scholars. Abdelkader and his father Muhieddine left Egypt but they are carrying in themselves good memories during their stay in Egypt they were also impressed by the quality of life and development in different aspects of life there, not like in Algeria where the Ottomans controlled everything there by military force.

Above Image (grave of the Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him)

After when they left Egypt they headed for Mecca in order to perform Hajj and he also visited the grave of the Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him) they encountered Sheikh Shamil the Caucasian leader after that when they finished Hajj they travelled to Baghdad in Iraq where they visited many Islamic scholars and governors there they left Baghdad for Damascus then they returned back home to Algeria.

The Emir and his father Muhieddine went for hajj for the second time and during their stay in Egypt they celebrated the Prophet Mohammed’s (Peace Be Upon Him) birthday. When they returned home to Algeria the Turkish authorities has finally allowed the Emir and his father Muhieddine to return to their hometown in Mascara.

Above Image (Kaaba is a holy masjid for Muslims)

When they returned to Mascara in 1828 the people of the town were waiting in order to welcome them, so when they arrived they celebrated with people of the the town, Emir Abdelkader and father Muhieddine missed their family and people after two years of absence. The Emir was so interested in reading philosophy books like Plato, Pythagoras and Aristotle, also sometimes he used to read history books like Era of the Caliphs and Islamic empires.